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口译专业速记符号大全

标签:家教 时间:2013-01-27  来源:翻译
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导读: 一、缩写词:AbbreviationsinNotetakingUseonlytheabbreviationsthatfityourneedsandthatyouwillremembereasily.Agoodideaistointroduceonlyafewabbreviationsintoyournotetakingatatime.1.Symbolshelpfulinmath--these...
口译专业速记符号大全

 一、缩写词:Abbreviations in Note taking

Use only the abbreviations that fit your needs and that you will remember easily. A good idea is to introduce only a few abbreviations into your note taking at a time.

1Symbols helpful in math -- these are commonly used in texts and references.
S   =   sum
f   =   frequency

Leave out periods in standard abbreviations.
cf   =   compare
e.g.   =   example
dept   =   department

Use only the first syllable of a word.
pol   =   politics
dem   =   democracy
lib   =   liberal
cap   =   capitalism

Use entire first syllable and only 1st letter of 2nd syllable.
pres   =   presentation
subj   =   subject
ind   =   individual
cons   =   conservative

Eliminate final letters. Use just enough of the word to form a recognizable abbreviation.
assoc   =   associate
biol   =   biology
info   =   information
ach   =   achievement
chem   =   chemistry
max   =   maximum
intro  =   introduction
conc   =   concentration
min   =   minimum
rep   =   repetition

Omit vowels, retain only enough consonants to give a recognizable skeleton of the word.
ppd   =   prepared
prblm   =   problem
estmt   =   estimate
bkgd   =   background
gvt   =   government

Use an apostrophe in place of letters.
am't   =   amount
cont'd   =   continued
gov't   =   government
educat'l   =   educational

Form the plural of a symbol or abbreviated word by adding s.
chpts   =   chapters
egs   =   examples
fs   =   frequencies
intros   =   introductions

Use g to represent ing endings.
ckg   =   checking
estg   =   establishing
decrg   =   decreasing
exptg   =   experimenting

Spell out short words such as in, at, to, but, for, and key.

Abbreviations or symbols for short words will make the notes too dense with shorthand.

Leave out unimportant words.
Leave out the words a and the.

If a term, phrase, or name is written out in full during the lecture, substitute initials whenever the term, phrase, or name is used again. For example, Center for Aerospace Sciences becomes CAS thereafter.

Use symbols for commonly recurring connective or transitional words.
&   =   and
w/   =   with
w/o   =   without
vs   =   against
/   =   therefore
=    =   is or equal

2。 Use technical symbols where applicable。
zb   =   German, for example
ibid   =   Latin, the same work
o   =   degrees
H2O   =   waterMore reference:
Use standard maths, accounting, and science symbols. Examples:
+ plus
// parallel

Use standard abbreviations and leave out full stops. Examples:
eg example
IT dept Information Technology department
UK United Kingdom

Use only the first syllable of a word. Examples:
mar marketing
cus customer
cli client
Use the entire first syllable and the first letter of the second syllable. Examples:
subj subject
budg budget
ind individual

To distinguish among various forms of the same word, use the first syllable of the word, an apostrophe, and the ending of the word. Examples:
tech'gy technology
gen'ion generalisation
del'y delivery

Use just enough of the beginning of a word to form a recognisable abbreviation. Examples:
assoc associated
ach achievement
info information

Omit vowels from the middle of words, retaining only enough consonants to provide a recognisable skeleton of the word. Examples:
bkgd background
mvmt movement
prblm problem

Form the plural of a symbol or abbreviated word by adding 's.' Examples:
custs customers
fs frequencies
/s ratios
Use 'g' to represent 'ing' endings. Examples:
decrg decreasing
ckg checking
estblg establishing

Spell out, rather than abbreviate short words. Examples:
in
but
as
key

Leave out unimportant verbs. Examples:
is
was
were

Leave out unnecessary articles. Examples:
a
an
the

If a term, phrase, or name is initially written out in full during the talk or meeting, initials can be substituted whenever the term, phrase, or name is used again. Example:
January Advertising Campaign Budget JACB

Use symbols for common connective or transition words. Examples:
@ at
2 to
4 for
& and
w/ with
w/o without
vs against

Create your own set of abbreviations and symbols。 You may wish to develop separate sets of symbols and abbreviations for different courses or subjects。

Other Symbols and Abbreviations
as a result of / consequences of <--->
resulting in --->
and / also +
equal to / same as =
following ff
most importantly *
less than <
greater than >
especially esp.

 

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